Baden-Baden is a town in Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany. It is located on the western foothills of the Black Forest, on the banks of the Oos River, in the region of Karlsruhe.Twinned with Amstetten in lower Austria.
The German word ‘Baden’ translates as ‘to bath/bathe’. The springs of Baden-Baden were known to the Romans, and the foundation of the town is referred to the emperor Hadrian by an inscription of somewhat doubtful authenticity. The name of Aurelia Aquensis was given to it in honour of Aurelius Severus, in whose reign it would seem to have been well known. Fragments of its ancient sculptures are still to be seen, and in 1847 remains of Roman vapour baths, well preserved, were discovered just below the New Castle.
The town was named Baden (without the repetition) in the Middle Ages. From the 14th century down to the end of the 17th, Baden-Baden was the residence of the margraves of Baden, to whom it gave its name. They first dwelt in the Old Castle, the ruins of which still occupy the summit of a hill above the town, but in 1479, they moved to the New Castle, which is situated on the hillside nearer to the town, and is renowned for its subterranean dungeons. During the Thirty Years’ War, Baden-Baden suffered severely from the various combatants, especially from the French, who pillaged it in 1643 and left it in ashes in 1689. The margrave Louis William (popularly known as Turkenlouis) moved to Rastatt in 1705.
In 1931, the town of Baden-Baden was officially given its double name (a short form for Baden in Baden, i.e. Baden in the state of Baden). In both World Wars, the town escaped destruction. After World War II, Baden-Baden became the headquarters of the French forces in Germany and the site of a displaced persons camp.