Near to the Armenian border, Kars is about 30 km from the ancient capital of Armenia, Ani. Bronze and Iron age settlements have been excavated on the site, so have possible Uruatian buildings.


There is re-used classical masonry in the citadel walls and the remains of what is probably a Zoroastrian fire temple. Ani is first mentioned by Armenian chroniclers in the 5th century A.D. as a strong castle built on a hilltop and a possession of the Kamsarakan dynasty.

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