Pakistani literature, that is, the literature of Pakistan, as a distinct literature gradually came into being after Pakistan gained its nationhood as a sovereign state in 1947, while remaining largely in the shadow of Indian English Literature. The common and shared tradition of Urdu literature and English literature of India was inherited by the new state. Over a period of time, a body of literature unique to Pakistan has emerged in nearly all major Pakistani languages, including Urdu, English, Punjabi, Balochi, Pushto and Sindhi.
The nature of Pakistani literature soon after independence aroused controversy among writers due to its being centred heavily on the negative events related to the India-Pakistan partition. According to Gilani Kamran (GC University), Pakistani literature was expected to take a new direction along with the new state of Pakistan at this point, but did not immediately meet this expectation.
Saadat Hassan Manto (1912-1955), a prominent writer of short stories of the South Asia, produced great literature out of the events relating to the India-Pakistan independence. The literature, which came out of the period that followed, is considered to have been progressive in its tone and spirit. According to several critics it had not only evolved its own identity, but also had played a significant role in documenting the hardships and hopes of Pakistan in the latter part of the 20th century.