The Era of Chinggis Khan

After the migration of the Jurchen, the Borjigon Mongols had emerged in central Mongolia as the leading clan of a loose federation. The confederations of core Mongol tribes were transforming into a statehood in the early 12th century and became to be known as Khamag Mongol. They occupied one of the most fertile lands of the country–the basins of the river Onon, Kherlen and Tuul in the Khentii mountains.
The first Khan of Khamag Mongol recorded in history is Khabul from Borjigin clan. Khabul Khan successfully repelled the invasions of Jin Dynasty. Khabul Khan was succeeded by Ambagai Khan from Taichuud clan. Ambagai was captured by the Tatars while he came to deliver his daughter as a bride to the Tatar confederation and was given to the Jurchens of Jin Dynasty who cruelly executed him. Ambagai was succeeded by Khotul Khan, a son of Khabul Khan. Khotul Khan was engaged in 13 battles with the Tatars endevouring to revenge for Ambagai Khan.
Khamag Mongol was unable to elect a Khan after Khotul passed away, however Khabul’s grandson Yesukhei who was a chief of the Khiad subclan of Borjigon Mongols, was an effective and foremost leader of Khamag Mongol. Temuujin, the future Chinggis Khaan, was born into Yesukhei’s family as the first son in Deluun Boldog on the upper reaches of the Onon river (Khentii Province, present Mongolia) in 1162.
Yesukhei was poisoned by the Tatars in 1170 and shortly after Yesukhei passed away. Khiad rejected the boy, Temuujin, as their leader and chose one of his kin instead. Temuujin and his immediate family were abandoned and apparently left to die in mountainous region. Yesukhei’s widow Oelun and his children lived for a long time in a misery but her eldest son, Temuujin, turned out to be extremely energetic, enterprising and shrewd. He married Burte, daughter of Khongirad tribal chief Dei Setsen, to whom he had been betrothed by his father. Hence, Khamag Mongol remained in political crisis until 1189.
The Tatar confederation was first recorded in history in 732. The Tatars became subjects of the Kidan in the 10th century. After the fall of the Kidan Empire, the Tatars were experienced pressure from the Jin Dynasty and were urged to fight against the other Mongol tribes. The Tatars lived on the fertile pastures around the lakes Khulunbuir and occupied a trade route to China.
The Khereid Khanlig was located between the mountain ranges of Khangai and Khentii and centered on the site of nowadays city Ulaanbaatar in the willow groves of the Tuul river. Markus was Khan of the Khereid in the 12th century. Markus was succeeded by Tooril Khan. In his feud with his brothers for the Khereid throne, he was repeatedly aided by Yesukhei of Khamag Mongol.
The confederation of the Three Mergids was located in the basin of the river Selenge and the Hori Tumed (Buryat) tribes lived around the lake Baikal. The Khanlig of Naiman was situated between the mountain ranges of Altai and Khangai. The Ongud tribes lived at the north of Gobi. Other tribes and confederations were Bayad, Khongirad, Oin Irged (Taiga People) and so forth. While most of the Mongolian tribes were Shamanists, Nestorian Christianity was practiced in a number of confederations such as Khereid and Ongud.

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